Rainham is a suburban town in the London Borough of Havering, but traditionally in Essex. It is on the N bank of the Thames, E of Dagenham and separated from the river by Rainham Marshes. The church is in the old centre, and is the only medieval building still standing. 20thc expansion has largely proceeded to the W. St Helen and St Giles is a remarkably complete later 12thc church, consisting of a chancel, a nave with N and S aisles, and a S porch, and a W tower with some 12thc lancets and a replacement brick parapet with a pyramid roof. Construction is of flint and stone rubble with ashlar dressings. The church was restored by Rev. Ernest Geldart (1897-1910). Romanesque features covered here are the doorways in the N nave aisle and on either side of the chancel as well as the E oculus on the exterior, and inside, the nave arcades, chancel and tower arches, font and a piscina in the S nave aisle.
There were 4 holdings recorded in Rainham in 1086, the chief one, which later became the Manor of Rainham, held in demesne by Walter of Douai and assessed at 8 hides. It was held in 1066 by Leofstan the Reeve. Walter died c.1107 and the manor passed to his son, Robert of Bampton, and thence Robert’s daughter Gillian who married William Paynel (d.c.1165). She subsequently married Warin de la Haule, who was in possession until he died in 1176. In that year Rainham passed to Gillian’s son Fulk Paynel, who fled the country after getting into financial difficulties in 1185; his lands passing into the king’s hands. Rainham was given to Gilbert de Vere in 1179-90, and he gave most of his lands to the Knights Hospitallers when he entered that order.
Gillian Paynel’s second husband, Warin de la Haule presented to the rectory in 1170, but when Rainham was in the king’s hands the advowson was exercised by Gilbert Foliot, Bishop of London. Subsequently the advowson was given to Lesnes abbey (Kent) at the request of the abbey’s founder Richard de Lucy, the justiciar, and it remained in the abbey’s possession until its dissolution in 1525.
|Height of opening||1.55m|
|Width of opening||1.13m|
|Height of opening||1.59m|
|Width of opening||0.91m|
|Height of opening||1.90m|
|Width of opening||0.56m|
Paired engaged shafts with no bases carrying paired capitals. On the W jamb both capitals are fleshy waterleaf with fine basketweave between the leaves. The inner capital and the upper part of the outer is badly spalled with irreparable losses and the exposure of the friable interior of the stone. The E capitals, also waterleaf but with trilobed leaves between the notched lobes of the leave, are in better condition. The capitals have plain roll neckings and the impost blocks are quirked hollow chamfered with major losses. The arch is carved with centripetal lateral chevron, consisting of an angle roll and a face hollow with a row of nailhead between them, and a cogwhell inner edge. Like the imposts and the W capitals it has major losses due to spalling.
Polygonal engaged nook-shafts with no bases. The W capital is a shaft swallower in the form of a grotesque human head with curly hair, ears correctly placed, drilled almond eyes with heavy brows and a small doglike nose with, apparently, a long handlebar moustache extending almost to the earlobes. The necking is plain and the impost largely lost. The E capital is a shaft-swallowing bird with a hawk’s beak, round drilled eyes and an overall covering of hooked feathers. The necking is plain and the impost largely lost, although a trace of the hollow chamfer remains. The arch is as the 1st order but without the row of nailhead. Outside each capital and on the same block is carved a double scallop with wedges between the cones. This curiosity apparently supports the extrados of the 2nd order. The label is badly eroded, as would be expected owing to its exposed position. It is chamfered with a row of dogtooth on the chamfer.
Of 8 chamfered voussoirs, each with a small disk in the centre of the inner edge projecting into the light.
Double chamfered with syncopated hyphenated zigzags projecting inwards and outwards.
The 1st order has plain, unmoulded jambs and arch to E and W. There are frieze capitals carved with rows of scallops in low relief under the arch but not on the E and W faces, and these are topped by quirked hollow-chamfered imposts that extend along the W chancel wall on the E face. The order has been modified by the introduction of 13thc arcading on the N side of the W face.
On the S jamb there is no support, but what is above suggests a lost shaft. A moulded capital on the angle continues as a frieze along the E wall of the nave. It has no decoration, and above it is a quirked hollow chamfered impost block. On the N jamb there is also no support and this side of the arch has been modified by the introduction of the 13thc arcading mentioned above. The arch itself is carved with 3 rows of frontal chevron on the face. The inner row is an angle roll, then a face hollow and at the extrados a double row of nailhead. Outside the arch is a plain chamfered label.
|External diameter of bowl at rim||0.625 m|
|Internal diameter of bowl at rim||).485 m|
|Height of bowl||0.43 m|
|Height of font (without plinth)||1.015 m|
B. Cherry, C. O'Brien and N. Pevsner, The Buildings of England, London 5 East, New Haven and London 2005, 185-86.
Historic England Listed Building 201549
N. Pevsner, The Buildings of England. Essex, Harmondsworth 1954, 292.
RCHME, An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 4, South east. (1923), 116-19.
Victoria County History: Essex VII (1978), 126-42.