Kirkby Lonsdale is not unusual in north-west England for its great width, as the larger parishes of the 14thc. led to a need for extra aisles. What is unusual is the scale of its earlier, pre-Perpendicular work. The church has a very showy aisled 13thc. choir with an E counter-facade of rich Early English ornament. This is still out-done by the Romanesque work, with its three full-length arcades in a clean rectangle. The earliest section is the N arcade which clearly echoes Durham Cathedral at some remove. The later S arcade is Transitional late Romanesque, and probably goes with the priest's door preserved in the S aisle of the current chancel. The major W portal and S doorway are mid- to late 12thc..
The church has been much altered: a 16thc. clerestory above the Romanesque arcades has been added and removed, meaning the walls above the Romanesque arcades are all rebuilt. The biggest interference to the Romanesque fabric seem to be the 1705 reconstruction of the tower, attested by a date stone, when work was probably done on the west portal. However, Neo-Norman replacement is confined to the ringing gallery on the E face of the tower; otherwise the sculpture is occasionally damaged but untouched by restoration efforts.
In the 1090s Ivo de Taillesbois gave the church and its land to St Mary's Abbey at York, which kept it as an appropriated vicarage. The parish had the usual high income for the north-west, assessed for tax in Domesday at 43 geld units, and in the 1292 Taxation at £102,14,13.
|Height of opening||276 cm|
|Width of opening||121 cm|
|Height of opening||111 cm|
|Width of opening||262 cm|
|Height of opening||310 cm|
|Width of opening||147 cm|
|Height of opening||276 cm|
|Width of opening||121 cm|
|Height of opening||315 cm|
|Width of opening||163 cm|
|Average height of arcades (floor to peak of arch soffit)||5.81 m (approx.)|
|Average width of bay (pier drum to pier drum)||2 m|
|Height of plinths||1 m (approx.)|
The scallops on the S side facing the central vessel of the nave have received ornament and figurative sculpture.
W side: the face of the central scallop has what appears to be a spiral of foliage treated with beading, with further such ornament, without the beading, underneath. The R-hand scallop contains further entwined foliage.
The underside of the south-west corner of the capital has a face with a morose expression, and deep, expressive lines, set to the R amid looped foliage (commonly referred to as a "green man" and given its own spotlight by the church).
S side: The L-hand scallop has a quadruped curled up in the semi-circular face; its head turned backwards. The centre scallop face is plain, and the R-hand one has been knocked away. Underneath the damage, the SE corner has what appears to have been a pair of hybrid centaurs fighting. The one on the R is well-preserved, but only a curled tail and raised front leg remain of that on the L.
E side: The L-hand scallop has a bird, probably an eagle, with its head curled under its body to fill the semi-circle. Half of the central scallop is filled with a curled vine with volutes, the other half is on a separate piece of stone and is plain. Below a quadruped clutches a book, perhaps the Agnus Dei.
From the way the carving interacts with the architectural contours and does not cross separate blocks of stone, it does not appear to have been carved in-situ.
This pier is a compound type. It has three shafts attached to each side, with the central capital carrying the soffit and the outer capitals carrying the hood. The W capitals are simple cushion capitals, and those to the E are reeded with three vertical lines on each face.
The N and S sides have a a shaft with no capital but a circular abacus, as if to carry a vault. There are no such corresponding shafts on the W respond, so it is difficult to see how the vault would have been supported.
|Height of arcade (floor to peak of soffit)||5.7 m|
This circular pier stands on a standard base on top of the small plinth. The base has nailhead ornament around its rim. Its capital appears a simple scallop capital type, with four large bold units to each face, but it is heavily remade: the W half is all very clean red stone. The NW corner is lighter but is also very clean, and incorporates half of one scallop on a separate piece of stone. This half of a scallop has bead ornament on the rim. The whole N face of the capital probably had this motif, like its pair in the N arcade.
These piers are standard drum columns with circular capitals with narrow central bands and abaci.
The W respond is extremely simple in profile, a chamfered square, with part of the wall itself chamfered to form the flanking members. This has a narrow capital with an extremely thin abacus. The middle band has unusual very flat, abstracted ornament. Reading the ornament is not helped by the destruction of that of the flanking elements and N corner, which have been almost entirely knocked off (presumably for installation of a W gallery).
M. Hyde and N. Pevsner, The Buildings of England. Cumbria, New Haven and London, 2010, 2nd edition, 458-62.
An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Westmorland, London 1936, 133-140 (Royal Commission on Historical Monuments of England survey).
M. Thurlby, 'Romanesque architecture and Architectural sculpture in the Diocese of Carlisle', Carlisle and Cumbria: Roman and Medieval Art, Architecture and Archaeology, British Archaeological Association Conference Transactions 27, Leeds 2004, 269-290, esp. 277-280.